Alternative Marketing Ethics Within the Context of the Madinah Markets and Akhi Organizations: The Anatolian Approach


This paper aims to explore the idea and practice of historical marketing in non-Western societies in terms
of marketing ethics. Furthermore, it aims to provide novel insights into the evolution of the core subject matter of marketing science and exchange behavior regarding its present conceptualization. The paper is conceptual in nature, providing a historical depiction of exchange practices and then presenting an alternative account of the evolution of the ideas and practices of marketing that occurred in the Anatolian peninsula (Asia Minor) different from that of Western interpretations. Marketing is concluded to have been practiced and pondered about long before modernity. Indeed, marketing can be argued to date back as early as the 7th century. In addition, differing cultural and religious backgrounds may have led to unique understandings of marketing. As argued contrary to Western interpretations, the Anatolian approach presents different primary motives for exchange. These include not only individual interests and desires but also the well-being of society at large in addition to spiritual advancement. We argue that contemporary
Western interpretations of marketing cannot be generalized to all marketing contexts. Accordingly, a culturally and historically rooted approach is presented to shed light on the depth and diversity of human exchange behavior and ethical perspective in the context of Anatolia.


Marketing History Marketing Ethics Madinah Markets Hisbah Organizations Akhi Organizations Anatolian Approach